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Adam Smith ADAM SMITH Adam Smith (AD 1723 ~ 1790 AD) was the main founder of economics. He was born in Keke, Scotland in 1723, and studied at Oxford University in his youth. From 1751 to 1764, he served as a professor of philosophy at the University of Gesgo. During this period, his first book "Moral Love" was published, establishing his prestige in the intellectual world. However, his immortal reputation lies in his great book "Research on the Nature and Reasons of National Kangfu" (Research on the Nations ") in 1776. The book was successful in one fell swoop, so that he enjoyed honor and love in the rest of his life. He died in Kocofi in 1776. Smith has never married all his life and has no children.
Adam Smith is not the earliest pioneer in economics. Many of his most famous ideas are not novel and unique, but he first proposed a comprehensive and systematic economic theory to develop the development of the field for the first time. Lay down a good foundation. Therefore, it can be said that "National Wealth Theory" is the starting point of modern political economics research.
One of the great achievements of this book is to abandon many past wrong concepts. Smith refuted the old business doctrine. This doctrine emphasizes the importance of a large amount of gold coins in the state. He rejected the point of value of the land of heavy agriculturalists, and put forward the basic importance of labor. Smith emphasized a large amount of production caused by labor unions caused by labor unions, and criticized a set of decaying and arbitrary political restrictions that hindered industrial development.
The central idea of "National Fortune Theory" is that the free market that seems to be messy seems to be a self -adjustment mechanism, which automatically tends to produce the most urgent number of goods in the society. For example, if the supply of product supply that needs is naturally increased, the price increase will make the manufacturer get higher profits. Due to the high profits, other manufacturers also want to produce this product. The result of increased production will ease the original supply shortage, and with the competition between various manufacturers, supply growth will reduce the price of the product to the "natural price", that is, its production cost. No one is a purpose to help the society by eliminating the shortage, but the problem is solved. In Smith's words, everyone "only wants to obtain their own interests", but it seems that "it is" being held by an invisible hand to achieve a purpose that he has no intention of realizing it, ... they promote the interests of society, and their interests, whose interest The effect is often better than what they really want to realize. "(" National Wealth Theory ", Chapter 4 Chapter 2)
But if free competition is blocked, that" invisible hand "will be Will not do work just right. Therefore, Smith believed in free trade and argued to resolutely oppose high tariffs. In fact, he resolutely opposed the government's interference in business and free markets. He said such interference almost always to reduce economic efficiency and eventually put the public at a higher price. Although Smith did not invented the term "laissez -faire policy", he did more work to establish this concept than anyone else.
The people think that Adam Smith is just a rower of commercial interests, but this view is incorrect. He often repeatedly used the strongest words to scold the activities of monopoers and resolutely demanded it. Smith's understanding of realistic business activities is not naive and naive. There is a typical observation in "National Wealth Theory": "Few people rarely meet, but their talks are either planning a conspiracy to deal with the public or to make a plan to cover people's eyes."
Adam Adam · Smith's economic ideological architecture has a strict structure and strong argumentation, so that the economic ideological school has been abandoned within decades. In fact, Adam Smith sucked all their advantages into their own system, and also systematically disclosed their shortcomings. Smith's successor, including well -known economists such as Thomas Marces and David Lee Ka Tu, carefully enriched and revised his system (without changing the basic outline), which is now known as the classic economics system. Although modern economics has added new concepts and methods, these are generally the natural products of classic economics. In a sense, even Karl Marx's economics (naturally not his political doctrine) can be regarded as the continuation of classic economics.
In "Theory of the National Wealth", Smith foreshadowed the view of the excess population of Malassas to a certain extent. Although Li Jiatu and Carl Marx insist that the burden on the population will hinder the salary of the salary higher than the level of maintenance (so -called "the law of wage steel"), Smith pointed out that wages will grow under increasing production. The facts have clearly stated that Smith is right at this point, and Li Jiatu and Marx are wrong.
In addition to the correctness of Smith's views and the impact on later theorists, his impact on legislation and government policies. The book "The Lunaries of the National Wealth" is superb skills, clear writing, and has a wide range of readers. Smith opposed government interference in business and business affairs, agreed low tariffs and free trade, and had a decisive impact on government policies throughout the 19th century. In fact, his impact on these policies can still feel today.
The economic development since Smith has developed a rapid development so that some of his thoughts have been put aside, so people easily underestimate his importance. But in fact, he is the main founder of economics theory, so he is the main character in the history of human thought.
1. "The Real Tragedy of the Poor is the Poverty of their" The real tragic place is the poverty of their ambitions
2. Who is in health, out of debt, and has a clear? "" For a healthy, loan, and conscience, what can he be happier? "
3 . We can have our dinner, and because of their own interests.
4. "The Real Price of, What Really Costs to the Man who wants to accquire it." For a person, the real price of the world is just working hard to get their hard work and trouble.
5. Exercise Our, The of Human Nature "The worry for others, not for ourselves, restrict our selfishness, and show our charity emotions. These form the perfection of human nature. is the sole end and purpose of all proction; and the interseted of the process to be attended to, only so far as it may be nextary that promoting that of the consumer. And the end point; the manufacturer, the interests of the service, the existence of the interests of the consumer
Smith's classic quotations: 1 We are all economics. When who touches their own interests, they will all emit a low roar 2 ... In their lives, they have changed multiple ends and randomly. In the epic story in the epic story
The meaning of this can be understood in this way, one is divided into two types of people, one is the leader, one is the leader and the leader uses the controller to make money because the leader is not the leader, so only by the leader's use of the world in this world It's such a person who stepped on such a cruelty to survive
The market is an invisible hand
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