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  1. The development status and trend of e -commerce in China
    1. The development of my country's e -commerce is briefly reviewing

    ???? Chinese computer applications have a history of more than 40 years, but e -commerce has only more than ten years. On September 20, 1987, China's first email crossed the Great Wall and turned to the world, unveiling the prelude to China's use of the Internet.

    ???? The development process of e-commerce in my country can be divided into three stages:

    ???? 1.1990-1993, develop EDI's e-commerce application stage r

    ???? my country has started EDI's e -commerce applications in the 1990s. Since 1990, the State Family Planning Commission and the Science and Technology Commission have included EDI in the "85" national science and technology research project, such as the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic and Trade. State Foreign Trade License EDI System, China Foreign Trade and Transport Corporation China Foreign Maritime Transport/Air Transport Management EDI System, China Chemical Import and Export Company "Sinochem, Petroleum, Rubber Trading EDI System" and Shandong Paulis "EDI Application "and so on. In September 1991, the Office of the Promotion and Application of the Electronic Information System of the State Council was led by the State Family Planning Commission, the Science and Technology Commission, the Ministry of Economic and Trade, the Ministry of Trade Department, the Ministry of Communications, the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications, the Electronic Department, the State Technical Supervision Bureau, the Foreign Exchange Administration, the Foreign Exchange Administration, Eight ministries and commissions including the General Administration of Customs, Bank of China, the People's Bank of China, the People's Insurance Corporation, the Taxation Bureau, and the Promotion of the Council launched the "China EDIFACT Committee" and participated in the "China Edifact Committee" and participated in the Asian Edifact Council in October of the same year. At present, there are 18 national departments and 10 local committees. EDI is applied at domestic and foreign trade, transportation, banking and other departments.

    ??? 2.1993-1997 Government leadership organizations carry out the "three-gold project" stage to lay the foundation for e-commerce development.

    ???? In 1993, the National Economic Informatization Joint Meeting and Office of the State Council was established and their office. Major progress. In May 1994, the People's Bank of China, the Ministry of Electronics, and the Global Information Infrastructure Committee (GIIC) jointly organized 700 people from the United States, Britain, France, Germany, Japan, Australia, Egypt and Canada. In October 1994, the "Asia -Pacific E -Commerce Symposium was held in Beijing", so that the concept of e -commerce began to spread in my country. In 1995, China's Internet began to commercialize. Internet companies (ISP, .COM) began to rise.

    ???? In January 1996, the State Council National Informatization Work Leading Group was established. In 1996, Quanqiao.com and Internet officially opened.

    ???? In 1997, the relevant departments of the Information Office were drafted and prepared in the informationization planning of our country. In April 1997, the national information work conference was held in Shenzhen. The provinces of its office have begun to formulate information construction plans including e -commerce including e -commerce. In 1997, advertisers began to use online advertising. Since April 1997, the Chinese Commodity Ordering System (CGOS) has begun operation.

    ???? 3.1998 began to enter the development stage of the Internet e -commerce

    ???? In March 1998, my country's first Internet online transaction was successful. In July 1998, the Chinese commodity trading market was officially announced and was called "the Canton Fair that never closed." The Chinese commodity spot trading market is my country's first spot electronic trading market. In 1999, the spot electronic market electronic transaction volume reached 200 billion yuan. The Bank of China and Telecom Data Board cooperated to conduct e -commerce pilots in Bank of China in Hunan to launch my country's first SET -based e -commerce system. In October 1998, the State Economic and Trade Commission and the Ministry of Information Industry jointly announced the launch of the "Gold Trade Project" with electronic trade as the main content. It is a large -scale application pilot project that promotes network applications and develops e -commerce in the field of economic and trade circulation. Essence In 1998, the capital, Shanghai and other cities launched e -commerce projects, carried out pilots for e -shopping malls, e -commerce buildings and e -malls, carried out online shopping and online transactions, established financial and non -financial demonstration centers, and relevant standards and regulations to carry out e -commerce for future e -commerce in the future. lay the foundation. At present, my country's e -commerce is still in its infancy or initial stage. The Pharmaceutical Electronic Commerce Network was put into operation in 1998. The medical and health industry was connected to 10,000 enterprises and institutions to provide thousands of Chinese and Western drug information. The national inventory commodity regulation network, national building online, and real estate network promotion have been officially opened.

    ???? March 1999 8848 and other B2C websites were officially opened, and online shopping entered the actual application stage.

    ???? In 1999, government surfing the Internet, enterprises accessing the Internet, e -government (government Internet project), online taxation, online education (Hunan University, Zhejiang University online university), remote diagnosis (Beijing, Shanghai, Shanghai The large hospitals) and other broad e -commerce began to start, and they have already piloted and entered the actual trial stage. 4. In 2000, my country's e -commerce has entered a stage of pragmatic development.

    ???? E -commerce is gradually taking the traditional industry B2B as the main body. The changes in the needs of e -commerce service providers (DOTCOM) are shifting from illusions and risk capital markets to real market demand, combined with traditional business enterprises, and at the same time, some more successful and profitable e -commerce applications have begun to appear. Due to the further improvement of the external environment such as infrastructure and the further improvement of e -commerce applications, the demand for e -commerce in the real market is mature, and the "localization" trend of e -commerce software and solutions has accelerated. E -commerce software and solutions have gradually dominated in the market. my country's e -commerce has been fully launched and has initially achieved results. The advantages of network -based e -commerce will be further played.

    ???? The current status of the development of e -commerce in China

    ???? 2.1 China's computer ownership, Internet users, and websites have grown rapidly in recent years

    ??? The domain name "rapid growth, according to the statistics of relevant departments:

    ??? 2000 2002.6 2002.12
    n ???? 39 million

    ???? The number of connected computers 8.9254132 million

    ??? n
    ???? Domain name 22,27,26,900

    ???? R n ???? The rapid development of China's Internet has promoted the network of e -commerce and computer applications.

    ???? n ???? In 2002, electronic government affairs entered a comprehensive implementation stage, and the national government procurement investment was 35 billion yuan (25 billion hardware, 4.5 billion software, information services 5.5 billion yuan) increased by 25%over the same period. In July 2002, Guoxin The guidance of the hosted cloth on China's electronic government construction includes three major measures: 1) to establish two unified e -government network platforms, internal network processing office, inter -network processing departments, enterprises, and public service obligations. Clean engineering construction, (gold tax, gold, gold, gold, gold review, etc.). 3) Accelerate the construction of important strategic databases (population, agricultural information library, etc.). Governments at all levels across the country are implementing Gov applied by governments at all levels. The domain name was 4615 in January 2001, and there were more than 7,796 in December 2002. In some provinces, the township governments have all access the Internet, and government websites at all levels have published government information online. They have opened up communication with the public and provided services to provide services. For channels, many local governments have established information release inquiry systems for the masses, and set up "Mayor's Mailbox" and "Government mailboxes" to facilitate the public to participate in politics. The online office project provides 565 types of download office documents. It has established 143 government websites in Shanghai to achieve cross -department industry and commerce online parallel approval. In the past, it was necessary to run over 18 departments for more than 5 days to run for 1 department. Guangzhou has established 76 government websites and 93 application systems, such as 43 departments for online approval in the "Enterprise Registration and Annual Inspection parallel approval system". One of the demonstration projects, set a number of records such as the most advanced technical performance, the richest information resources, and the largest visits, and other government websites. Affairs strategy, technical research, and electronic government planning and construction have also established an electronic port system in the forefront of the country and other departments of the country. The import and export customs clearance business management is performed online. Enterprises can complete the customs clearance procedures online. The national tax system computer wide area outlets have exceeded more than 4,000 points, and they have basically built a national tax computer network. More than 20 million taxpayers in the country have a computer management. 75%of the country's taxes are levied through computers. The taxation department has conducted online application and tax payment pilots in some areas. Online taxation has been realized in some provinces and cities such as Shanghai, Jiangsu, Shandong, and Guangdong. Drugs have bidded and purchased online. Electronic government affairs have entered a comprehensive implementation of strongly promoting the development of e -commerce.

    ???? 2.3 The environment of my country's e -commerce continues to improve

    ???? The environment for the development of e -commerce in my country (network infrastructure and other operating environment, legal environment, market The conditions of environmental online payment, information security, and certification center) are gradually improved. The state's policies and regulations on e -commerce are about to be introduced, and basic conditions have been established for the development of e -commerce. Increased network bandwidth, the total bandwidth of international export bandwidths has reached 8880m in 2002, an increase of 23.5%over 2001; the connection bandwidth of the nine major Internet units and the China National Internet Exchange Center (NAP) reached 21412m, broadband The access has grown significantly, with 4.17 million users, of which ADSL accesss 1.87 million households, LAN accesss 1.7 million households, and 600,000 access methods such as Cable Modem and wireless are accessible. The national modern payment system has made substantial progress. On October 8, 2002, the large -time real -time payment system was successfully put into operation in Beijing and Wuhan. The promotion of 11 major economies such as Haikou has initially formed a national cross -bank and cross -regional bank card information exchange network. Some progress has emerged in logistics distribution. China Post, which has the largest transmission network in China to join the field of e -commerce, has also appeared in some professional distribution companies specializing in e -commerce projects.

    ???? Chinese government attaches great importance to the security issues of e -commerce applications and development. Industry certification centers, such as the safety certification centers led by Telecom, Customs, and People's Bank of China, have been established, and the certification centers of Shanghai, Guangzhou and other cities have also been established. Pay attention to and increase investment. In 2002, regulations and laws related to e -commerce are also mature. In 2002, the drafting of the electronic signature regulations was completed, and more laws were brewing.

    ???? 2.4 Industry e -commerce rapid development

    ???? The operating environment of foreign trade e -commerce in 2002 has greatly improved, and the national import and export license network applies Comprehensive investment and operation with the issuance system, enterprises can apply for import and export permits online; the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic and Trade has already established sites such as online Canton Fair, China Commodity Trading Market, China Technology Export Fair, China Merchants and other sites. Among them, China The commodity trading market (China Market), more than 8,000 companies have displayed nearly 30,000 kinds of products in this virtual market all year round. This year, the online negotiation platform has been opened. The introduction of agricultural and sideline products such as vegetables, fruits, and meat, and residents of community residents who set up distribution sites through online order, the company conducts cleaning, processing and distribution of customers' requirements. Agricultural and sideline products. At present, 60,000 Beijing citizens have become members of the company. Since 1997, farmers in Nantong City have reached more than 200 varieties through online sales, and sales have achieved nearly 100 million yuan. Entering the fast track of getting rich.

    ???? 2.5. A lot of progress in e -commerce in provinces and cities

    ??? E -commerce in Hainan and other places has made a lot of progress.

    ???? Beijing Capital E -commerce Engineering Engineering has made great progress. 2. Merchants have played a role in national and global e -commerce, with millions of visitors per month, and the monthly online operations have reached millions of yuan. In 2002, Beijing e -commerce has gradually established and formed the characteristics of the capital characteristics. The function of e-commerce system, e-commerce service platform-Capital E-Mall is further improved, and the four-level community e-commerce service information network system is fully opened. From January to September 2002, B, B to C e-commerce transaction value is the respective transactions 36.01 billion yuan and 383 billion yuan, an increase of 121.87%and 164.14%over the same period last year. The prospects of the e -commerce market are optimistic. Xidan Mall invested 9 million yuan at the end of 2001 to establish an e -commerce company (IGO5). Monthly sales have exceeded 4 million yuan. In September 2002, Shihua opened a new record for online open pure e -commerce procurement with a single multinational online purchase amount of more than 10 million yuan. Auction of four different special plastics. The total turnover exceeds 10 million, saving the purchaser of more than one million yuan, and the percentage of 10.72%. At this point, Shihua Kai has successfully made the largest office stationery chain in the United States and the largest office stationery chain in the United States and the United States and the largest office stationery chain stores in the United States and the largest office stationery chain stores in the United States. Germany's largest retailer held a dozen Chinese export commodity online bidding ordering meetings. Netease In early 2001 Yisu Cooperation Online Auction, July 5, 2002 On the day of the contract, the auction cooperation between the two parties officially expired. On July 9, 2002, "NetEase Auction" launched its own auction service on the homepage of NetEase. On March 18, 2002, the US EBAY company received a 33%equity of EBAY for EBAY EBAY company EBAY company EBAY company, making Eat the largest in China the largest C TO C online auction website. In 2002, the sales of mobile phones on the Internet of China increased by nearly 150 %. At present, there are 264 mobile phone models of various brands at home and abroad, which can be sold through the Internet. Low 1 % to 2 %, online sales of mobile phone accessories can be cheaper than 40 % to 50 % than traditional stores. The Beijing Community E -commerce Engineering has achieved remarkable results in the past year: relying on the capital public information platform to connect 18 districts and counties and 149 streets into a whole, to achieve interconnection and establish 169 websites in 169 community service centers to form the city's community services For information website groups, 149 street hotline call systems are installed, management software is installed in 1,200 communities, developing community e -commerce support platforms, network access is realized in 2,400 communities. Way. The Shanghai Social Security Card Project has achieved results over the years, with a total of 8 million card issues, and 6 million people are used for medical insurance settlement.

    ???? Jinan e -commerce and modern logistics application demonstration projects, in the past year, the Sanlian Group has established the home appliance e -commerce alliance with Sanlian Group as a leader and 22 household appliance manufacturers and more than 20 sellers. The home chain store is renovated. 24 implements close distributor management systems, and 10 implementation of core distributor management systems (that is, uniformly managed by ERP). The distribution efficiency of the headquarters and the company's sales stores is greatly improved. The origin of order processing is shortened to 5 minutes, achieving comprehensive integration of commercial flow, information flow, and logistics, and resource sharing. Hainan's online marketing of e -commerce and agricultural products in tourism industry, Chongqing is online farmers, trade supermarkets, online light industry markets, Xuzhou Huaihai Food Mall, Tianjin has piloted in logistics distribution and accumulated useful experience. China Telecom Hunan Electronic Commerce Center Established 179 portals to carry out security services such as online security transactions, security payment, securities, banking, shopping and CA demonstration.

    ???? 2.6 The development status of the B2B and B2C markets in my country According to CCID research and analysis materials: In December 2002, 3,804 Chinese e -commerce websites were increased by 12%over 3391 in 2001. 1533 effective operation, an increase of 16%over 1326 in 2001; 2,277 consumer e -commerce websites, including 285 comprehensive websites, 1992 professional websites, and 737 that can be effectively operated. There are 189 category websites, 1,338 professional websites, and 796 that can be effectively operated; the size of the e -commerce market, e -commerce transaction value of 180.9 billion yuan in 2002, an increase of 66.2%over 108.8 billion yuan in 2001; B2C transaction volume 2001 in 2001 It was 1.315 billion yuan, 2.5 billion yuan in 2002, with an annual growth rate of 90%; B2B transaction volume in 2001 was 107.5 billion yuan, 178.4 billion yuan in 2002, with an annual growth rate of 65.9%.

    ??? 2.7? my country's industrial and transportation enterprises e -commerce has made significant progress

    ???? 2002 manufacturing information application pilot demonstration project was fully launched, nationwide 27 The provinces and cities, 46 key cities, and nearly 2,000 enterprises carry out manufacturing informatization pilot demonstration projects.

    ???? In August 2001, CCID surveyed more than 600 enterprises in 13 industries in 10 cities, 22.3%of enterprises participated in e -commerce, 9.3%of enterprises carried out supply chain management 15.6%of individual enterprises carry out distribution channel management, 51.4%of enterprises conduct online sales, 72.9%of enterprises conduct information inquiry, and 72.4%of enterprises perform online information release. A survey conducted by the National Economic and Trade Commission shows that 66.67%of the six aviation companies have implemented e -commerce, 57.14%of the 7 petrochemical companies have implemented e -commerce, and 46.67%of 15 foreign trade enterprises have implemented e -commerce e -commerce , Other industries such as electronics, railway, medicine, machinery, automobiles, chemical industry, textiles, metallurgy and other industries to implement e-commerce, the proportion of e-commerce is about 20%-50%. Insufficient development, below 20%, especially the coal, construction and non -ferrous metal industries, the proportion of e -commerce is below 10%. In 2002, about 26.1%of Chinese companies participated in e -commerce. Large enterprises participating in e -commerce are the most active, with a proportion of 32.1%, and the proportion of small and small enterprises is 27.8%and 21.4%, respectively.

    ??? The highest business ratio reached 41.3%, followed by a Sino -foreign joint venture with a proportion of 33.5%. The proportion of state -owned and private/private enterprises is relatively low, less than 25%, but compared with 2001, there are different degrees of large and medium -sized enterprise groups such as Baosteel, Sinopec, Lenovo, Founder, Haier and other groups. Based on the internal ERP management of the enterprise, online marketing and online procurement have been carried out, and the construction of supply chain management and customer relations have been ordered.

    ???? China Petroleum Natural Gas Co., Ltd. (PetroChina) trading on the B2B website has been included in the main production plan. As of December 2002, the transaction volume exceeded 19.3 billion yuan, of which 106 was electronic procurement 106 100 million yuan, electronic sales of 8.7 billion yuan. In the first 10 months of 2002, the online transaction volume of PetroChina was 15 billion yuan, of which 9.2 billion yuan in electronic procurement and 5.8 billion yuan in electronic sales. The average saving procurement cost is 5%. In the "Western Qi East Instead" project, it was completed in just 7 hours for an online purchase of more than 600 million yuan, saving 120 million yuan in funds. One of the electronic procurement of petroleum special pipes, CNPC can save 200 million yuan each year

    ??? Sinopec and petrochemical product sales e -commerce network has the following benefits: 1. Reduce sales costs, 2000 in 2000 From August to December 2002, the turnover of petrochemical products was 30.2 billion yuan, saving hundreds of millions of yuan in sales costs; 2. more effectively serving customers. Customers can check the products and order information online to better provide customers with timely timely to provide customers in time Technical support and technical services to improve customer satisfaction; 3. Increase business opportunities, promote enterprises online, introduce product performance, expand sales turnover, and have added more than 100 new customers so far. Petrochemical materials procurement e -commerce system procurement transactions were 1.97 million, with a turnover of 20.9 billion yuan, and saving about 500 million yuan in procurement funds. Haier Group has realized the reorganization of business processes centered on single information flow, and conducts online centralized bidding, procurement, service and marketing through the B2B e -commerce platform to improve product quality, reduce costs, reduce warehousing area and inventory funds. As of 2001 12, 12th 12th, 12th 12th, 12th, 12th 12th, 12th, 12th, 12th, 12th, 12th, 12th, 12th, 12th, 12th, 12th, 12th. On the 31st, the online transaction value reached 18.8 billion yuan. The transaction value was 12.36 million yuan; the single -sized more than 90 cities across the country, including rural areas, nearly 10,000 information on online receiving processing information, including suggestions, consulting, cooperation, services and other types of information. There are many product design suggestions to be adopted. Through analysis and mining of order information and receiving various information, it has improved the competitiveness of enterprise for sales and production decision -making, and laid a solid foundation for Haier's internationalization road. In 2001, Haier realized a global turnover of 60.2 billion yuan, established the MySAP electronic procurement platform, 10%of the procurement order was issued online to achieve first -class three networks, with single information flow, global supply chain resource network, user resource network and computer The information network has reduced the purchase cycle from an average of 10 days to 3 days, the warehousing area is reduced by half, the inventory funds are reduced by about 700 million yuan. Dial logistics. Baosteel Co., Ltd. passed the online bidding of large materials of the Dangfang Iron and Steel Online BSTEEL platform. As of July 2002, the purchasing volume reached more than 5 billion yuan, and nearly 400 suppliers participated. At present, Tens of tens of thousands of T steel products and tens of billions of yuan are carried out online each year, including exports. Through the implementation of the resource management plan (ERP), Lenovo Group standardized and optimized 77 business processes, and strengthened the integration of subsystems such as finance, sales, manufacturing, and procurement. At present, Lenovo Group has completed the information of the supply chain link. It has developed collaborative e -commerce. `About 70 % of the country's large and medium -sized enterprises have survived the Internet, established websites, with URLs, homepages, carried out online product information, conducting online negotiations, signing contracts, and conducting online distribution.

    ???? The application of computers has made great progress in the application of railway, civil aviation, and shipping departments. The railway transportation management system TMIS is basically completed. Since the system has been put in operation in 1996, more than 6,000 windows of 2199 stations have achieved computer tickets, and the ticket centers of the Ministry of Railways and 24 regional ticket centers have been established to achieve online ticket sales in the country. For more than 90%, the recent construction content of the railway e -commerce system includes government websites and e -commerce, e -commerce pilots of e -commerce in the Railway Materials Corporation, namely China Railway Material Trade Network, Logistics Network And the pilot work of container e -commerce. Civil Aviation booking system provides the control and sales services of flight seats for 26 airlines. GDS), it is connected to 386 foreign aviation and 2,000 hotels, laying the foundation for e -commerce, information technology includes highway, inland water transportation and ocean shipping systems including highway freight trading information systems, container transportation, port management EDI networks, electronics, electronics, electronics, and electronics. Application systems and water safety supervision have achieved substantial progress.

    ??? 2.8 Far -range education has developed rapidly

    ???? About 100,000 primary and secondary schools in the country popularized computer classes, more than 10,000 primary and secondary schools built campus The Internet, computer -assisted teaching has been promoted in universities and middle schools, developed a lot of courseware, and improved the quality of teaching. In recent years The Ministry of Education has approved 67 universities to start online universities. In September 2001, a total of 60,800 students enrolled in students, including 460,000 people in the Central Electric Power University; more than 200 regular online schools in middle schools in the country, and more than 600,000 students in more than 70,000 middle schools. The "SARS" Beijing Municipal Education Commission opened the "Class Online" for students to study on the Internet at home. The National Basic Education Resources Network has also opened. The widespread application of modern network technology in teaching provides an unprecedented development opportunity for education systems.

    ???? The 67 online universities approved by the Ministry of Education have developed unprecedentedly during this period, and in a very period, ordinary students and departure students, and registered students from distance education together together Feel remote education. All high universities in Beijing make full use of the existing distance education colleges and let students leave the school leave the school "get out of class". Beijing set a record of 80,000 people at the same time. The online school of Peking University has recently launched the "SARS Learning Plan". All primary and secondary school students in Beijing can

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